The Future Begins Now
The use of composite material in Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner and the Lockheed F-35 joint strike fighter is benefiting manufacturing, the environment, the entire air travel industry, and the most advanced fighter jet in the world.
The 787 Dreamliner being built by Boeing, in Everett, Washington is changing the face of air travel in more ways than one. Besides the new passenger-pleasing features like an improved interior environment, wider seats and aisles, and larger windows, the 787 Dreamliner is the first commercial jet ever to have the majority of its primary structure—including the tail, wing and fuselage—made of advanced composite materials.
Arthur Warfield & Associates, LLC (“AWA”) is proud to introduce a full line of carbon fiber-based composite engine components not yet available in the automotive industry; well ahead of even the largest car manufacturers!
Four years of research and development has resulted in 2 utility patents, 8 provisional patents and 3 trademarks. We’ve engineered a full product line, securing the exclusive rights from our supplier for use of the highest Aerospace-quality carbon fiber material with AWA’s proprietary sealant process to protect against fluid uptake and friction.
While many manufacturers offer carbon fiber trim kit options on their higher end models for aesthetic purposes, AWA realizes that the benefits of composite materials extend further than just a sleek design and a contemporary look. We’ve integrated composite materials into functional engine components which translates to greater strength, lighter weight, greater fuel economy and dramatically IMPROVED PERFORMANCE.
Science in Brief
Carbon composite connecting rods currently in development by Lamborghini, “expected date of release, 2020 or 2021.” -Road and Track, July 6, 2017
In the basic laws of physics, “an object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion.” Unsprung weight is the enemy of performance, and with our products, we’re seeing nearly HALF the weight of aluminum! With any reciprocal mass, the lighter the weight(s) the more efficient the transient responses are that occur within the rotating cycles of the engine, therefore creating a dramatically more efficient cycle as it relates to fuel requirements and engine performance.
What Does a Rotating Mass Actually Do?
A rotating mass does not really consume or dissipate energy. A rotating mass stores energy. The rotating mass eventually either returns energy to the system in a useful way, or something converts the stored energy to some other form of unwanted energy. The conversion might be with a friction, converting to heat. The energy stored might be helpful, like the smoothing of cylinder pulses in an engine flywheel. The energy stored also might not do anything at all, or the stored energy can even be harmful, reducing acceleration or braking.
Accelerating an unnecessary rotating mass requires energy, and the acceleration process saps some of the horsepower we have available to accelerate our vehicles. Reducing available horsepower affects acceleration in a very predictable manner, and the horsepower amount needed to spin something up gives us some feel for how important a part change might be.
Four things determine the effect of rotating mass:
- How quickly and often a rotating mass speeds up or slows down. Every time it is forced to speed up or slow down, it takes or releases energy.
- How heavy the rotating mass is. More weight (with no other changes) stores or releases more energy.
- The rotating weight’s distance outwards from the center line. The further out, the more energy pushed in and out of a given weight.
- How fast the weight spins, or the speed the weight travels in a given circle diameter. The higher the RPM, the more energy stored.
This is how it works:
- If we push energy into the rotating mass and pull energy out several times, we move more power around than if wee make a slow, smooth, change in speed. It takes much more effort to repeatedly speed and slow something in short period of time than to gradually speed it or slow it.
- The amount of weight is the least important thing! If we double the weight (with no other changes) we only double the stored energy.
- Weight distance from the center line is very important because it determines the weight’s circular velocity (speed). Stored energy goes up by the SQUARE of the radius change. If we replace a 4-inch diameter hollow driveshaft with an 8-inch diameter tube of exactly the same weight, it is not just double; it is twice the size squared, or four times the stored energy when it weighs the same!
- The faster we spin the weight, the more energy it stores. If we double RPM, we multiply stored energy four times. Again it is a square of the change just like weight distance from center line is a square.
- If we double the effective “circle size” the weight is rotating at, we get four times the stored energy. If we simply double the weight without changing the spinning radius, we just double stored energy.
- If we reduce mass from twenty pounds to ten pounds, keeping the same distance out and the same peak RPM, we reduce stored energy to half the original amount. Reducing weight is a one-for-one change.
- If we cut a diameter in half while keeping the same weight and RPM, stored energy will be 1/4 the original stored energy. This change is a square. Twice is a “four times” effect. 2*2=4. Four times is a sixteen time effect on stored energy. 4*4=16.
- If we cut RPM in half, we would reduce stored energy to 1/4 the original amount. Once again, this is a squared change. Change RPM three times, and the stored energy changes nine times. 3*3=9.
The last “things” to worry about are small diameter “things” that change speed a smaller amount, change speed over a longer time and change speed less often. They will have much less stored energy. If we want to reduce rotating mass we should look at the heaviest things that speed up and slow down most often, spin the fastest, and are large in diameter with most of the weight at the outside edge.
What is Energy?
Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in many forms like heat, mechanical, electrical and others. According to the law of conservation of energy, the total energy of a system remains constant. Energy may be transformed into another form, but it is constant within a system. For example, we know that two pool balls eventually come to rest after colliding. They stop moving only because the applied energy (from moving the cue stick) is eventually converted to heat (from friction with air and the table) and sound (which is not very much of the energy loss). The ball movement along the table’s felt surface and through the air, transfers energy outside the two moving balls to the air and environment around the table and into the table itself. The temperature of the table and air rises ever so slightly because the applied energy moves outside the system we see. Since the heat energy is spread all around in a very large area, we don’t notice the temperature rise and only notice that the balls quit moving.
Another example is our car’s brakes. The energy stored in the moving weight of the car is converted to heat by friction of brake pads rubbing against metal rotors attached to the rotating wheels. This converts stored energy (the engine put into the weight of the vehicle) into heat, and the heat (containing all of that energy) radiates out into the air. Most of what we actually do in a car is move heat around.
Newton’s First Law
A mass continues in its state of rest, or continues uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
Old guys like Newton sure had a lot of time on their hands to think about simple things, but they got it right. A rocket coasting through outer space is a good example. It will go on forever in a straight line unless it hits something, or unless gravity or some other force pulls it in a new direction. The earth wants to move in a straight line, except gravitational attraction to the sun bends its path constantly. A bullet reacts the same way, except friction with air and gravity changes the direction and speed gradually over distance.
Newton’s Second Law
The acceleration produced by a particular force acting on a body is directly proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.
We push harder and/or longer, and something moves faster. If it is heavier, we need to push longer or harder (or both) to obtain the same speed. It takes more energy to accelerate a heavier object to the same speed as we might move a lighter object to that same speed. We can either apply more force or apply the same force over a longer time to make something move faster. It is all about TIME times the POWER, or the amount of TIME an amount of POWER is applied. This is why those big showoffs can eventually move a large boat, a railroad car, or an airplane. All it takes is low friction and enough time and someone who can’t move a Volkswagen with two flat tires can roll a 10-ton railroad car.